Friday, August 29, 2014

Mongolia Brief August 28, 2014 Part V

New hospital to address Mongolia’s cancer crisis

By C L Murphy
August 28 (UB Post) According to the World Health Organization (WHO), Mongolians are investing more money in their health and consequently, living longer, healthier lives.

According to WHO, the probability of an individual living in Mongolia dying under the age of five, as of 2012, is 28 out of 1,000 births. This is down from 42 out of 1,000 births in 2006. The infant mortality rate has decreased from 44.6 to 19.4 deaths out of 1,000 live births between 1995 and 2010, just as the maternal mortality rate has dropped dramatically from 186.9 to 45.5 deaths out of 1000 in 1995 and 2010 respectively. Similarly, in 2006 the total expenditure on health per capita was 149 USD, but as of 2012 had more than doubled to 345 USD. The total expenditure on health was 5.1 percent of the gross domestic product in 2006, but has risen to 6.3 percent in 2012.
However, the increase in life expectancy and decrease in infant and maternal mortality should not overshadow more pressing concerns in Mongolian health and healthcare. Current research investigating the leading causes of mortality in Mongolia shows that Mongolians are now at a greater risk for lifestyle- and behavior-dependent diseases. WHO states, “The changes in Mongolian [health statistics] are reflected in the burden of diseases moving from communicable to non-communicable diseases. Leading causes of mortality are now circulatory system disorders and cancers.”
The result of a successful, national program of high immunization coverage and public awareness education has meant that infectious diseases have not been among the leading five causes of death in Mongolia since 1990. Instead, circulatory system diseases, cancer, and injuries have taken their place. Despite being the primary cause of death in 1990, respiratory system diseases have now fallen to fifth place. This is in contrast to a sharp increase in numbers of deaths from injury and cancer.
Mongolia’s rate of cancer is particularly worrying. According to WHO, cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide- accounting for 8.2 million deaths (approximately 13 percent of all deaths) in 2012. The most frequent cancers are lung, liver, stomach, colon, and breast cancer. In Mongolia, cancer accounted for eight percent of deaths in 1989, but was listed as responsible for 21 percent in 2010. This means that the rate of cancer in Mongolia is eight percent higher than the global average.
In addition, according to the World Cancer Research Fund, Mongolia has the highest rate of liver cancer in the world, 33 times greater than the rate in Russia. According to the National Cancer Registry of Mongolia, between 2003 and 2007, 17,271 new cases of invasive cancer were recorded (52.2 percent in males, 47.7 percent in females). Liver cancer was noted as the most common cause of death by cancer for both genders, with a rate that is approximately four times the global average.
Research suggests that this high rate of cancer is largely a result of life style. According to the second WHO STEPwise surveillance survey, conducted in 2009, 27.6 percent of the Mongolian population smoke, and 42.9 percent of the population was exposed to second-hand smoking at home. 38.6 percent of respondents reported consuming alcohol in the 30 days previous to taking the survey, and binge drinking (more than five drinks on one occasion for men, or more than four drinks for women) was 39.7 percent in men and 15.1 percent in women. The survey also noted that almost half (39.8 percent) of the Mongolian population is overweight, and 12.5percent are obese. Between 2005 and 2009, the prevalence of overweight and obese individuals has increased by 8.3 percent and 2.7 percent respectively. Manifold studies from various institutions all over the globe have linked the consumption of tobacco, alcohol, and excess body weight with increases in various cancers, thus providing a direct link between lifestyle choice and health.
To address the problem of cancer growth in adult Mongolians, opportunities are being pursued to prevent liver cancer through education of the dangers of excessive alcohol consumption, and the promotion of hepatitis B vaccinations. In addition, other forms of cancer common in adults, such as lung and cervical cancer, are being addressed through education of the dangers of tobacco usage and through increased access and affordability of pap-smears and other preventative, diagnostic gynecological care.
The risk of cancer and disease among children, however, is less the result of lifestyle and behavioral choices, and more frequently a consequence of insufficient access to adequate healthcare. According to a 2007 review of pediatric health in Mongolia, child deaths due to acute respiratory infection and diarrhea have decreased, whereas deaths due to neonatal causes and injuries have increased. Neonatal deaths, as of 2010, represent almost two thirds of all infant deaths in Mongolia, with 80 percent occurring within the first week of life. This is largely a result of insufficient medical treatment that is necessary in the crucial first weeks after birth.
Arjia Rinpoche, well-known to the public as the 20th Arjia Danpei Gyaltsen, a high Tibetan lama of Mongolian descent, has noted on his website ( that 86 percent of Mongolians who are diagnosed with cancer have terminal cases. Of these, most survive less than a year. Cancer is the second leading cause of death in Mongolia, and a large number of patients are children, in whom the incidences of leukemia, brain tumors, and osteocarcinoma (bone cancer) are higher on average than in other countries. Additionally, the cost of health care is rising in Mongolia, largely a result of the post-Communist shift towards a market-driven economy. Cancer treatment is particularly expensive, due to the cost and inaccessibility of the necessary machinery and medicine, as well as the long-term nature of most chemotherapies and other cancer treatments.
In response to this need, Arjia Rinpoche and his colleagues have developed The Cancer Care Treatment Center for Mongolian Children. Rinpoche, who is also the director of The Tibetan Mongolian Buddhist Cultural Center in Bloomington, Indiana, USA, the founder of The Buddhist Center for Compassion and Wisdom in Mill Valley, California, and the founder of The Center for Compassion and Wisdom, a non-profit and non-government organization, has undertaken extensive efforts to raise funds and public awareness for the development of a new pediatric oncological hospital to serve the children of Mongolia.
Having investigated multiple pediatric cancer units in hospitals across the US, Rinpoche and his team convened with medical and government officials of Mongolia, and decided upon the current structure: a six-story building within the grounds of the Mother’s and Children’s Medical Center in Ulaanbaatar. Previously, this hospital had a pediatric oncology section; however, its small size prevented the dissemination of adequate medical treatment. In 2010, there were only 16 children being treated, and in 2012 the number was no more than 26.
The new pediatric hospital is comprised of the following: the basement and first floor contain advanced medical equipment, including an angiography machine, to diagnose and treat congenital heart disease, with plans to acquire a CT scanner and an MRI. The second floor is reserved for neonatal and cancer surgeries. The third floor is the neonatal intensive treatment unit with 25 incubators for premature newborns. The fourth through sixth floors contain the blood disease and cancer unit, containing 50 beds, and will provide all necessary conditions for children with cancer and other debilitating diseases.
The goal of the hospital is to address the key obstacles in child healthcare in Mongolia, namely: the care of prematurely born children, providing necessary surgical care and machinery for all cancers (in particular leukemia), providing bone marrow transplants, and encouraging international collaboration between hospitals in order to share developments, technologies, new strategies and resources. In addition, each room in the hospital is equipped with purified oxygen, a vacuum system, an air compressor unit, and an intercom installed into the walls. This allows for easier access to necessary medical equipment, without the need to transport these items between rooms.
Rinpoche also noted the importance of creating resources for palliative care, similar to the popular Ronald McDonald House in the Unites States. Long-term cancer treatment for children, Rinpoche remarked, is particularly difficult for families who do not live in the capital city. The financial and practical challenges of transporting a sick child between the city and the countryside in order to stay with the family between treatments impede the healing process. To address this, Rinpoche is planning the development of a second building, adjacent to the newly opened hospital, to accommodate families of patients. This building will have seven accommodation rooms and a conference room for visiting physicians and researchers to facilitate the exchange of information, and to allow easier access to doctors who come to educate and instruct the hospital’s staff.
The hospital, while independently funded, will be a government run organization. Rinpoche notes that many of the problems apparent in Mongolian government hospitals, in particular corruption and the lack of access to necessary and sufficient medication, will likely also be a problem here. He is working with his colleagues to address these issues, and thinking of importing medicine directly to the hospital from India. Similarly, the question of corruption looms large, and as such Rinpoche plans to hire staff specifically to monitor the importation of the medicine and the maintenance of the machinery, to make sure that nothing is stolen and sold on the black market.
The cost of this hospital is currently at 2.8 million USD, of which almost 2.6 million USD has already been raised. The funds have come from donations, predominantly from Taiwan, Hong Kong, Singapore, and the US, as well as from the European Mongolian Society and the Mongolian Society of London. In addition, all money from Arjia Rinpoche’s memoir, “Surviving the Dragon- A Tibetan Lama’s Account of 40 Years of Chinese Rule” has been directed towards the project. Rinpoche notes that the Mongolian government has promised 230,000 USD towards the project, but so far has only contributed half of that amount.
When asked about the opening of the hospital, the grand ceremony of which took place this Thursday, Rinpoche said, “It’s very exciting. It’s a very, very good thing. I’m very, very happy.”
After the completion of this project, Rinpoche plans to maintain his organization to oversee the functioning and development of the hospital, and then take a much deserved break.

Ch.Ulaan: It wasn’t easy to build up a source for repaying the great debt

August 28 (UB Post) Russian President V.Putin will be visiting Mongolia in a few days. During his last visit in 2000, Mongolia had a huge debt to Russia. In 2003, when N.Enkhbayar served as Prime Minister (PM), the “Great debt” was annulled.
The following is an interview with MP and Finance Minister Ch.Ulaan, who worked as the Finance and Economic Minister in 2003, covering important aspects of the Great debt and upcoming state visit of President Putin to Mongolia.
You worked as the Minister of Finance when the Great debt to Russia was annulled. Now, you’re serving the same duty in the “new government for changes”. What do you think about the agreements and negotiations that annulled the Great debt, and its value and significance?
The huge debt made during the previous government was completely repaid and that’s what we refer to as annulling the Great debt. People are well-informed about only the negotiations and how the debt was repaid but two fundamental issues were resolved by repaying the debt. Firstly, we got to mutually understand principles at conference levels, starting from political conditions.
During President Putin’s visit in 2000, the Mongolian government discussed the Great debt. Former PM N.Enkhbayar negotiated the mechanisms for settling convertible RUB debt between the two countries during his official visit from June 26 to July 2, 2003. This became a historically significant decision. Mongolian and Russian ministries did detailed estimations on evaluations, mechanisms through which to settle the debt, and ensured strict adherence to international standards to settle the debt, which was unsettled for many years, by relieving 95 percent of the total amount.
After the PM’s visit, the commission to coordinate and resolve the great debt issue, supervised by the Finance and Economy Minister, continued to work in association with Russian bodies and the debt discount was settled through negotiation methods.
What was the method?
The use of accurate methodologies established in international markets and ensure that Mongolian economy and financing condition doesn’t face difficulties was our main principle. We needed to make decisions by combining these two principles. The debt was relieved by a sufficient amount and the remaining balance needed to be paid off on the spot.
At the time, Mongolia didn’t have the capacity to pay 250 million USD on the spot. The issue couldn’t be resolved without creating that capacity. The issue was concluded after going through several stages and by using debt sale method from internationally developed practices.
Mongolia resolved the debt via intermediary and international markets that were recognized and approved by the people that can actually accept payments.
What was the method that was chosen?
There were several choices. Government gave trust deeds to PIT Company. The company was able to discount approximately 98 percent of the Great debt by intermediating between creditors and borrowers. Previously, political agreements specified principles to relieve the debt by up to 95 percent and have associated ministries manage and decide detailed calculations as well as rationale. By working according to these principles, 98 percent of the debt was discounted. This is a major negotiation between the two countries, which continued for six months.
The last stage for resolving the Great Debt was to make the transaction. Paying on time was very important. Mongolia needed to make the last two transactions from December 21 and 25, 2003. Building up that money source wasn’t easy. The Mongolian economy didn’t have that amount of savings at the time and the government approached Parliament to get support from the national exchange reserves.
The government also saved up money using its own opportunities and managed to reserve some 20 percent of the total payment. Erdenet industry got taxation down-payment with some agreements and the government acquired short-term loans from mining companies by signing rigid agreements. This way, Mongolia was able to completely repay its debt to Russia. This was a huge financial operation as well as a unique transaction which Mongolia had never done before. Mongolia doing transaction of 250 million USD was a huge event.
All three sides, associated banks, financing companies, and the government, approved and validated the repayment and the debt was annulled on December 25, 2003.
What were the risks of this repayment process?
Mongolia made a huge sum of transaction by using some of its exchange reserves and by getting short-term loans. The risk was losing the economic stability. Some newspapers and the media warned that Mongolia would lose its economic stability, the USD exchange rates would rise up to 3,000 MNT, and that it’ll become the destruction of the economy. However, the Mongolian economy and financial conditions didn’t encounter any amortization. That huge operation was successful thanks to the correct and accurate management of the government, the Ministry of Finance, and the Mongol Bank.
Later, sources notified that the Great debt wasn’t completely repaid and there was a remaining balance of the Great debt. The media was considerably chaotic. What’s the reason for this rumor?
There was a certain amount of loan issues in the collective fund rules with Mongolrostsvetmet LLC. That issue was cleared after a bilateral meeting. The Mongolian side managed to end all problems officially. The Russian side now has to discuss and approve it in their highest legislative body, Duma. This work still hasn’t been completed.
Why isn’t the Russian State Assembly discussing this issue?
A certain political force and politicians repeatedly refused to finalize and close the Great debt nullification as they viewed it as unbeneficial to Russia. However, associated bodies of both countries completed all financial procedures. All that’s left is the political approval.
During the forthcoming Russian President Putin’s state visit, will the Mongolian side inquire about this matter?
Obviously, the government will focus on finalizing and determining cooperation matters that haven’t been resolved. This was acknowledged and both sides know exactly where the issues are. I’m anticipating the finalization process to hasten with the state visit.
The upcoming visit of Russian President Putin will become a major contribution for [state] principles. Especially in market conditions, relations and cooperation in current global conditions should draw closer and intensify in mutually beneficial terms.
Mongolia has two big neighbors. Trilateral cooperation activities have been approached and it’s progressing well. We’re expecting to cover and set foundations for major comprehensive and regional issues.
Chinese President Xi Jinping’s two-day state visit is over. As the Minister of Finance, what is your evaluation and assessment for its economic value?
I see President Xi Jinping’s state visit to Mongolia as fundamentally contributive. With the visit, all bilateral cooperation, mutual trust, and perspective cooperation principles, issues and topics were agreed upon and specified. The Chinese President Xi proposed four cooperation principles. Mongolia was able to create favorable conditions for future bilateral cooperation focused on developing Mongolia.
Several economic and finance issues were also determined. The two countries established a mutual understanding on some unclear, unresolved and problematic issues in the bilateral cooperation. Most importantly, China and Mongolia was able to freely share information at the highest level. The two countries established mutual understanding and trust, and advanced Mongolia-China relations.
From my perspectives as the Minister of Finance, several major issues for principles were covered. Particularly, cooperation between the two countries’ state banks and swap volume were enhanced. This is significant and supportive for providing assistance in the business sector as well as implementing major programs and projects for intensifying Mongolia’s economy.
China promised extreme amounts of grant aids which it never granted before. Grant aids are focused on implementing specific development priority measures. In other words, China will focus on development, while advancing together with its neighboring countries.
China is issuing a loan worth billions of USD with huge discounts to Mongolia. This discount will become a huge leverage for intensifying Mongolian economy. The loan should be used as efficiently as possible for the state financial and economic condition, without coercion. We have a loan, which was used this way before, which is giving off results.
At the moment, there is a caution that Mongolian debt may increase. Can you comment on this?
It seems that there are these sorts of cautions but the government has developed a financial mechanism that utilizes the loan, without turning it into debt, and has accumulated practical experience. The loan and aid should be used efficiently and used for economically beneficial projects. The project itself should function to repay the loan.
Mongolians are very concerned but there’s no need as it is possible to resolve the inadequate investment for development in the economy. Everyone is anticipating a similar level of new cooperation ideas and initiations to be made and implemented within the framework of the upcoming state visit of the Russian President to Mongolia. Mongolia is working actively in this area.
Source: Zuunii Medee (issue No.195)

Shingetsu Shikandai brings his work to Mongolia

August 28 (UB Post) Japanese artist Shingetsu Shikandai is exhibiting his artwork at Best Art Gallery from August 25 to 31, celebrating the 40th anniversary of the establishment of cultural relations between Mongolia and Japan.
He began his career as an artist in 1998 and opened his own gallery in Japan. Over 20 artworks depicting nature are presented in the exhibition.
His exhibition in Mongolia was curated by state honored artist D.Sosorbaram. D.Sosorbaram organized the exhibition because Shikandai’s artwork made a deep impression on him and he appreciated his talents while visiting an exhibition by the artist in Japan.
“He drew Mount Fuji in different ways and it made him popular. Visitors to the exhibition can see the natural born talent from his work,” said D.Sosorbaram.

Infant mortality and Mongolian population growth

August 28 (UB Post) Today we are glad that the Mongolian population is growing. But in reality, maternity hospitals can’t handle today’s overcrowding.
Mongolian President Ts.Elbegdorj appealed for an increase in the population, and the health sector and special inspections officials appreciated his speech. But it is unclear if the officials promoted the President’s idea at that time. Regardless, statistics show an increase in infant mortality from previous years.
Let’s have a look at health statistics for the first seven months of this year: 47,279 mothers gave birth and 47,587 new citizens were born in the last seven months nationwide. The number of mothers who gave birth increased by 1,464, or 3.2 percent, from the previous year, and the number of children who were born rose by 1,544, or 3.4 percent.
In July alone, 7,170 babies were born alive, 64 more babies born alive than the previous year.
With good things, bad news always follows. Let’s give consideration to some numbers.
Over the last seven months, 728 infants lost their lives (an increase of 10 percent, or 66 more deaths than last year). As soon as I saw this statistic, I wondered how we are going to increase our population if we lose our babies like this.
This fact proves that the Ministry of Health is not doing their job and the Inspection Authority, which has to inspect the Ministry’s work, can’t work enough. How did they all allow infant mortality to increase by 10 percent?
In 1990, the World Health Organization set a Millennium Development Goal to decrease mortality rates in children aged 0 to 5 by 30 percent in 1,000 live births. Mongolia has the duty to implement this goal and we have the larger goal of reducing mortality to 21 percent in 1,000 live births by 2015. Four months are left in the fixed period to meet this goal.
Already, 884 children from the ages of 0 to 5 years old have died in the last seven months and child mortality has increased by 8.9 percent from previous years. Can we lower this rate?
Three years ago, 30 infants in 1,000 died and the next year it declined to 18.7. But this year it
eached 17 infants, three more children from the previous year. Fifty-five to 60 percent of babies who can’t live past age five are infants. Nearly 88 percent of them leave this world when they are only one week old. Doctors say their deaths are the result of illnesses in the womb.
This means that maternal health influences a child’s life.
Children are also losing their lives in traffic and household accidents, when they start walking and crawling. The relevant organizations know the reasons for child mortality, but why can’t they do anything to stop, or at least reduce the nation’s losses?
The one millionth Mongolian citizen was born in 1960 and the two millionth citizen was born in 1988. The National Statistics Office of Mongolia reported that the three millionth citizen may be born in the beginning of 2015, and if net population growth reaches 71,000 in 2014, Mongolia might welcome its three millionth citizen at the end of 2014.
But with the problems we are facing, are we ready to receive our three millionth citizen?

Moving Mongolia forward – and why INS?

August 28 (UB Post) The Institute of National Strategy Series: Article 1, 2014
A group of men were enjoying the midday sunshine and each other’s company. They were rivals and friends – who drank and played together. This day, they were enjoying their vodka and telling stories, and planning the future for themselves and their families. A sheep was tethered to the pole 20 meters away, it looked forlorn and aggravated as it knew it was soon to be their dinner. The hours passed, the noise grew, the plans grew grander, and eventually, the men fell into a drunken sleep.
Several hours later, the men started waking up. They were hung-over, but still cheerful as they remembered all the plans they had made for themselves. Somebody said, “Let’s eat.” And they all looked to the table, where there was no food. One looked back in the direction of the sheep, and laughed.
Another sleepily said, “The sheep is still a sheep.”
Last October, business leaders met at a business association summit in Ulaanbaatar, where there was discussion about why Mongolia was languishing at that point in time, and what should be done. The business leaders knew that the poor economic conditions in Mongolia were partially a result of a global downturn, but also acknowledged that Mongolia’s situation was also of its own making. They all wanted Mongolia to find a “winning formula”.
Since October 2013, the economic conditions of the country have further deteriorated. Capital investment and foreign direct investment have fallen sharply, domestic inflation is on the rise, and reports of dwindling federal exchange reserves are supported by a steadily devaluing tugrug.
It is important to create the conditions to get the business associations, Mongolian intellectuals, the parliament, and the arms of government to generate outcomes for Mongolia that speed up the rate of development and deliver great outcomes for Mongolians and the institutions that work and invest in Mongolia’s future.
Mongolia has critical challenges and fixing these requires honest evaluation of the reality that we find ourselves in. This evaluation demands penetrating questions and frank exchanges of view. These can focus the mind and place attention where it is needed.
Today there is significant disillusionment with many media opinions being expressed in a negative manner. There are many different opinions as to the causes of our collective problems and it is the aim of the Institute of National Strategy to add to the debate, but hopefully in a way that brings people together to discuss the issues, and ultimately, to put meaningful solutions into place.
The following situations focus us on just five issues that will be addressed in the early articles of the INS article series.
Situation 1: A good measure of a country’s wealth is its physical and social infrastructure. The condition of Mongolia’s roads, railways, airports, power stations, hospitals, clinics, schools, sporting, cultural and other facilities are a poor reflection of Mongolia’s natural beauty.
Situation 2: The government sets the conditions for Mongolia to generate the funding needed to tackle these physical and social infrastructure challenges. Importantly, these challenges present business opportunities and economic benefits. Jobs and taxes will be generated as these projects turn from pipedreams into construction projects and into operating realities.
Situation 3: Mongolia has experienced high and semi-high rates of economic growth since 2010, however, we now have significant devaluation of the national currency and steadily growing inflation rates. We still see real estate developments progressing in UB and several other cities,  but on the other hand, it is harder to understand the economic costs of the government’s quantitative easing programs and the impact on the government’s long term debt levels.
Situation 4: Countries with high GDP and globally successful companies “benchmark” their performance and strategies against the best in their field. They know that getting into the “top league” is hard work. The Economic Policy and Competitiveness Research Center (EPCRC) was established to work with the Institute for Management Development (IMD) to benchmark Mongolia against a basket of competitive countries.
The 2013 EPCRC report highlights the four key competitiveness factors and gives a breakdown of those critical subelements. Mongolia continues to rate poorly for its fourth year, but the report does give an understanding of what needs to change. The EPCRC view is reinforced by the World Economic Forum’s recent Global Competitiveness report, whereby Mongolia’s figures are in the bottom 20 percent of many critical measures.
Situation 5: In Mongolia, democracy is strong, evidenced by the number of newspapers, TV channels and internet platforms available to Mongolians. Indeed, the channels per head of population are unusually high. Mongolia is technically well positioned to support broad and insightful discussions on how to deal with its problems and turn adversity into opportunity.
This debate will no doubt be controversial at times. A recent article, written by a Mongolian, was posted on the website “Mongolia Focus”, where it raised the issues of foreign investors and their appetite for Mongolia. But what the article really addressed was how the writer saw business and government working in practice. This is obviously not a flattering view and we are sure some will object to the assessment and some will say it is not helpful for this type of discussion to occur. (
Summary: In this first article, INS has highlighted five situations which raise five issues for our leaders in government, business and society to debate.
•  The pace of critical infrastructure development
•  The slow pace in getting projects off the drawing board and into execution
•  Mongolia’s international competitiveness
•  The quality of critical analysis of economic performance
•  Using public policy debate to tackle the really critical issues
About INS
The Institute of National Strategy was formed because the leadership of Mongolia’s business associations know there is a huge gap in public policy debate. They feel this debate should be vibrant and focused on Mongolia’s strategic development choices and economic management. Importantly, these debates should be based on unbiased research and through working with leading edge Mongolians and international thinkers.
A key focus of INS is to see the private sector radically stimulated and for Mongolia to reap the benefits of a market driven economy. We believe that a great development strategy should be focused on Mongolia’s natural and locational competitive advantages, and seek to bridge the gaps where weaknesses stand in the way of essential objectives.
Specifically, INS aims to provide regular commentary via an article series on critical issues facing Mongolia and to provide input into long term strategic development planning.
INS will commission senior leaders and experts from within Mongolia and abroad to write these articles. They will be the opinions of the writers and INS will write a short piece at the end of each article to highlight how the issues may play out in the political arena. The purpose here is not to take sides politically but rather to highlight the policy positions that may exist within the political parties, the government or broader society.
INS acknowledges the good work of many organizations who seek to provide meaningful input into Mongolia’s public policy thinking. We will be seeking to formalize relationships and to provide pointers to where that good work can be found and further leveraged.
Next article in the INS Series: “Regaining credibility”
A website is being created that will provide useful links to reputable organizations doing similar work to INS, and as a repository for INS articles and key reports on Mongolia.
Link to article

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